Chemical Safety Approved Classification and Labelling Guide (Sixth edition) Chemicals (Hazard Information and Packaging for Supply) Regulations 2009 (CHIP 4)
Published by HSE
HSE priced and free publications can be viewed online or ordered from www.hse.gov.uk or contact HSE Books, PO Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA Tel: 01787 881165 Fax: 01787 313995. HSE priced publications are also available from bookshops. For information about health and safety ring HSE’s Infoline Tel: 0845 345 0055 Fax: 0845 408 9566 Textphone: 0845 408 9577 e-mail: email@example.com or write to HSE Information Services, Caerphilly Business Park, Caerphilly CF83 3GG. British Standards can be obtained in PDF or hard copy formats from the BSI online shop: www.bsigroup.com/Shop or by contacting BSI Customer Services for hard copies only Tel: 020 8996 9001 e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org The Stationery Office publications are available from The Stationery Office, PO Box 29, Norwich NR3 1GN Tel: 0870 600 5522 Fax: 0870 600 5533 e-mail: email@example.com Website: www.tso.co.uk (They are also available from bookshops.) Statutory Instruments can be viewed free of charge at www.opsi.gov.uk.
Chemical Safety What REACH Means for Users of Chemicals 2009
Author and Publisher: UK REACH Competent Authority
REACH (Registration, Evaluation, Authorisation and restriction of Chemicals) is the current system for controlling chemicals in Europe. It became law in the UK on 1st June 2007. You need to understand the ways it might affect you.
Biofilms and Chlorine in a Simulated Drinking Water Distribution system 1999
Author and Publisher: Robert M. Clark and Mano Sivaganesan, Water Supply and Water Resources Division, National Risk Management Research Laboratory-Cincinnati, Environmental Protection Agency
One aspect of maintaining water quality in drinking water distribution systems is controlling biofilm on distribution system pipe walls. Investigators have demonstrated the occurrence of high concentrations of bacteria in tubercles that exist in water mains, especially unlined cast iron mains, and on various types of pipe surfaces.
A study was conducted jointly by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and the University of Nancy in France to examine the control of microorganisms in treated water and at the pipe wall. A special pilot facility was constructed in which finished water from parallel water treatment pilot plants was discharged into pipe loops that contained sample tap locations to facilitate biofilm sampling. The facility was utilised to compare the effects of post-chlorination and post-chloramination on the concentration of microorganisms in the bulk phase and at the pipe wall.
Childhood Asthma and Exposures at Swimming Pools 2009
Author and Publisher: Clifford P. Weisel, Susan D. Richardson,Benoit Nemery, Gabriella Aggazzotti Eugenio Baraldi, Ernest R. Blatchley III, Benjamin C. Blount, Kai-Håkon Carlsen, Peyton A. Eggleston, Fritz H. Frimmel, Michael Goodman, Gilbert Gordon, Sergey A. Grinshpun,1Dirk Heederik,Manolis Kogevinas, Judy S. LaKind, Mark J. Nieuwenhuijsen, Fontaine C. Piper, and Syed A. Sattar, Environmental Health Perspectives
Objectives: Recent studies have explored the potential for swimming pool disinfection by-products (DBPs), which are respiratory irritants, to cause asthma in young children. Here we describe the state of the science on methods for understanding children’s exposure to DBPs and biologics at swimming pools and associations with new-onset childhood asthma and recommend a research agenda to improve our understanding of this issue.
Data sources: A workshop was held in Leuven, Belgium, 21–23 August 2007, to evaluate the literature and to develop a research agenda to better understand children’s exposures in the swimming pool environment and their potential associations with new-onset
Outdoor swimming pools and the risks of asthma during adolescence 2008
Author and Publisher: A Bernard, M. Nickmilder and C. Voisin, European Respiratory Journal
Exposure to indoor chlorinated swimming pools can be detrimental to the airways of swimmers and increase asthma risks but it is unknown whether these effects concern outdoor pools. The present study examined 847 secondary school adolescents who had attended residential or non-residential outdoor chlorinated pools at a variable rate. The main outcomes were: ever asthma (physician-diagnosed at any time); current asthma (ever asthma under medication and/or with exercise-induced bronchoconstriction); elevated exhaled nitric oxide; and aeroallergen-specific immunoglobulin (Ig)E in serum.
Asthma Chlorinated swimming pools and respiratory health 2009
Author and Publisher: Euro Chlor, Focus on chlorine science – a leaflet from this industry group
It is known that the ‘active chlorine’ in the pool water can react with organic matter introduced into the pool by swimmers in the form of sweat, natural body oils or urine, for example, to form volatile chloramines. These compounds can make the eyes sting and at high levels can irritate the respiratory tract. The presence of elevated levels of chloramines causes a ‘chlorine smell’ and is an indication that the pool is not properly managed; this may also be a sign that disinfection is compromised. Proper pool maintenance, ventilation, swimmer hygiene and proper chlorination are critical to optimise disinfection and minimise the presence of chloramines.
Author and Publisher: Goodman, Hays, Journal of Asthma.
In this meta-analysis, studies on swimming and asthma were divided into four groups: Group I compared frequency of asthma among elite swimmers to that of other athletes; Group II examined the association between asthma and swimming during childhood; Group III evaluated effects of swimming programs on asthma severity and pulmonary function; and Group IV compared immediate respiratory effects of swimming to those of other types of exercise. post-exercise pulmonary function tests (PFTs). Although asthma is more commonly found among elite swimmers than among other high-level athletes, it is premature to draw conclusions about the causal link between swimming and asthma because most studies available to date used cross-sectional design, because the association is not confirmed among non-competitive swimmers, and because asthmatics may be more likely to select swimming as the activity of choice because of their condition
Asthma Association between childhood asthma and indoor chlorinated swimming pools in Europe 2006
Author and Publisher:M Nickmilder, A Bernard. Occupational and environmental medicine.
Background: It has been hypothesised that the rise in childhood asthma in the developed world could result at least in part from the increasing exposure of children to toxic chlorination products in the air of indoor swimming pools. Objectives: an Ecological study to evaluate whether this hypothesis can explain the geographical variation in the prevalence of asthma and other atopic diseases in Europe. Methods: The relationships between the prevalences of wheezing by written or video questionnaire, of ever asthma, hay fever, rhinitis, and atopic eczema as reported by the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood (ISAAC), and the number of indoor chlorinated swimming pools per inhabitant in the studied centres were examined. Associations with geo-climatic variables, the gross domestic product (GDP) per capita, and several other lifestyle indicators were also evaluated
Asthma Lifetime swimming pool attendance in school children 2009
Author and Publisher:Font-Ribera, Kogevinas, Zock, Nieuwenhuijsen, Heedrick and Villanueva. 2009 Swimming Pool and Spa International Conference
A survey of school-age children to evaluate the association between swimming pool attendance and respiratory symptoms. None of the pool indicators was associated with having asthma. Early pool attendance <2, reduced the risk of current asthma medication and allergic rhinitis symptoms
Author and Publisher:Goodman and Hays Journal of Asthma A meta-analysis study of four groups comparing the frequency of asthma of swimmer to that of other athletes. Although asthma rate is higher in swimming, premature to draw conclusions on causal link because data uses cross-sectional design and the relationship is not confirmed among non-competitive swimmers
Swimming and Asthma in the ALSPAC child cohort Oct 2010
Author and Publisher: Laia Font-Ribera, Cristina M Villanueva*, Mark J Nieuwenhuijsen, Jan-Paul Zock, Manolis Kogevinas, and John Henderson. Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine.
The first prospective longitudinal study on the topic, following 5,738 British children from birth until age 10y. It suggests that swimming does not increase the risk of asthma. On the contrary it appears to be associated with higher lung function and less respiratory symptoms, particularly among asthmatic children